Mar 19, Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition PDF Free Download. Connecting with you through an approachable writing style. includes twenty chapters on topics such as diet plan- ning, macronutrients, vitamins and min- erals. Understanding Nutrition 13th Edition. Class 1; Overview of Nutrition; Planning a Healthy Diet. Textbook. Chapters List of Ingredients. Nutrition Facts Panel.
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Get this from a library! Understanding nutrition. [Eleanor Noss Whitney; Sharon Rady Rolfes] -- More than one million readers make UNDERSTANDING. Introductory Nutrition. eBook: Understanding eBook: Understanding Nutrition, 13th Edition. Eleanor Noss eBook ISBN: Available. eBook £. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Ellie Whitney, PhD grew up in New York City and received . Nutrition Facts: The Truth About FoodKindle Edition. Rockridge.
In , Underwood and Marston independently discovered the necessity of cobalt.
In , Eugene Floyd DuBois showed that work and school performance are related to caloric intake. In , Erhard Fernholz discovered the chemical structure of vitamin E and then he tragically disappeared. In , The U.
Department of Agriculture introduced the Food Guide Pyramid. Main article: Nutrient The list of nutrients that people are known to require is, in the words of Marion Nestle , "almost certainly incomplete". Some nutrients can be stored - the fat-soluble vitamins - while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients, or for some vitamins and minerals, too much of a required nutrient.
Macronutrients[ edit ] The macronutrients are carbohydrates , fiber , fats , protein , and water. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories.
Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose to complex polysaccharides starch. Fats are triglycerides , made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body.
Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids , some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible with the expenditure of energy to glucose and can be used for energy production, just as ordinary glucose, in a process known as gluconeogenesis.
By breaking down existing protein, the carbon skeleton of the various amino acids can be metabolized to intermediates in cellular respiration; the remaining ammonia is discarded primarily as urea in urine. Main article: Carbohydrate Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides , disaccharides , or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer sugar units they contain.
They constitute a large part of foods such as rice , noodles , bread , and other grain -based products, also potatoes , yams, beans, fruits, fruit juices and vegetables. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units.
Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates. This, however, is not accurate. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories kilocalories of energy per gram. However, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility.
Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer which is indigestible as humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it. There are two subcategories: soluble and insoluble fiber.
Whole grains, fruits especially plums , prunes , and figs , and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber.
There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet. Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it.
Insoluble fiber, found in whole wheat flour , nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis — the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines, which move digest along the digestive tract. Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that slows the movement of food through the intestines.
Nutrition is a fascinating subject, and we hope our enthusiasm for it comes through on every page. Ellie Whitney Sharon Rady Rolfes October xviii Acknowledgments To produce a book requires the coordinated effort of a team of people—and, no doubt, each team member has another team of support people as well.
We salute, with a big round of applause, everyone who has worked so diligently to ensure the quality of this book. We thank our partners and friends, Linda DeBruyne and Fran Webb, for their valuable consultations and contributions; working together over the past plus years has been a most wonderful experience.
Special thanks to our colleagues Kathy Pinna for her insightful comments and Gail Hammond for her Canadian perspective.
Thanks also to Lauren Tarson, Shelly Ryan, Elesha Feldman, and the folks at Axxya Systems for their assistance in creating the food composition appendix and developing the computerized Diet Analysis Plus program that accompanies this book. To the hundreds of others involved in production and sales, we tip our hats in appreciation.
We are especially grateful to our friends and families for their continued encouragement and support. We also thank our many reviewers for their comments and contributions. WithThroughout this chapter, the CengageNOW logo indicates an opportunity for online self-study, linking you to interactive tutorials, activities, and videos to increase your understanding of chapter concepts. How successfully your body handles these tasks depends, in part, on your food choices.
Nutritious food choices support healthy bodies. And it will continue to affect you in major ways, depending on the foods you select. Of course, some people will become ill or die young no matter what choices they make, and others will live long lives despite making poor choices.
Although most people realize that their food habits affect their health, they often choose foods for other reasons. After all, foods bring to the table a variety of pleasures, traditions, and associations as well as nourishment. The challenge, then, is to combine favorite foods and fun times with a nutritionally balanced diet. By comparison, an acute disease develops quickly, produces sharp symptoms, and runs a short course.
A variety of food choices can support good health, and an understanding of human nutrition helps you make sensible selections more often.
Two widely shared preferences are for the sweetness of sugar and the savoriness of salt. Liking high-fat foods also appears to be a universally common preference. Other preferences might be for the hot peppers common in Mexican cooking or the curry spices of Indian cuisine.
Research nutrition: the science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain, and of their actions within the body including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion. Habit People sometimes select foods out of habit.
They eat cereal every morning, for example, simply because they have always eaten cereal for breakfast. Eating a familiar food and not having to make any decisions can be comforting. People eat the foods they grew up eating. Every country, and in fact every region of a country, has its own typical foods and ways of combining them into meals.
This is most evident when eating out: 60 percent of U. Chapter 9 describes how people tend to eat more food when socializing with others. Meals are often social events, and sharing food is part of hospitality—regardless of hunger signals. Social customs invite people to accept food or drink offered by a host or shared by a group. An enjoyable way to learn about other cultures is to taste their ethnic foods. Consumers who value convenience frequently eat out, bring home ready-to-eat meals, or have food delivered.
Alternatively, some consumers visit meal-preparation businesses where they can assemble several meals to feed their families from ingredients that have been downloadd and portioned according to planned menus. Eating a banana or a candy bar may be equally convenient, but the fruit provides more vitamins and minerals and less sugar and fat.
They are less likely to download higher priced convenience foods and more likely to download less-expensive store brand items and prepare home-cooked meals. In fact, more than 80 percent of U.
By the same token, people can develop aversions and dislike foods that they ate when they felt sick or that they were forced to eat as a child.
By using foods as rewards or punishments, parents may inadvertently teach their children to like and dislike certain foods. Emotions Some people cannot eat when they are emotionally upset. Others may eat in response to a variety of emotional stimuli—for example, to relieve boredom or depression or to calm anxiety.
A depressed person may choose to eat rather than to call a friend. A person who has returned home from an exciting evening out may unwind with a late-night snack. Carbohydrate and alcohol, for example, tend to calm, whereas protein and caffeine are more likely to activate.
Eating in response to emotions can easily lead to overeating and obesity, but it may be appropriate at times. For example, some Christians forgo meat on Fridays during Lent the period prior to Easter , Jewish law includes an extensive set of dietary rules that govern the use of foods derived from animals, and Muslims fast between sunrise and sunset during Ramadan the ninth month of the Islamic calendar.